Infertility in men
Infertility denotes if pregnancy fails to occur after a year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.
More than 90% of male infertility cases are due to low sperm counts, poor sperm quality, or both. The remaining cases of male infertility can be caused by a number of factors including anatomical problems, hormonal imbalances, and genetic defects.
In many cases, the causes of sperm abnormalities are unknown.
Sperm abnormalities are categorized by whether they affect sperm count, sperm movement, or sperm shape. They include:
Low Sperm Count (Oligospermia).
- A sperm count of less than 20 million/mL is considered low sperm. Azoospermia refers to the complete absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate. Partial obstruction anywhere in the long passages through which sperm pass can reduce sperm counts. Sperm count varies widely over time, and temporary low counts are common. Therefore, a single test that reports a low count may not be a representative result.
Sperm motility is the sperm's ability to move. If movement is slow, not in a straight line, or both, the sperm have difficulty invading the cervical mucous or penetrating the hard outer shell of the egg. If 60% or more of sperm have normal motility, the sperm is at least average in quality. If less than 40% of sperm are able to move in a straight line, the condition is considered abnormal. Sperm that move sluggishly may have genetic or other defects that render them incapable of fertilizing the egg.
Abnormal Sperm Morphology (Teratospermia).
- Morphology refers to shape and structure. Abnormally shaped sperm cannot fertilize an egg. About 60% of the sperm should be normal in size and shape for adequate fertility. The perfect sperm structure is an oval head and long tail.
- Retrograde ejaculation occurs when the muscles of the bladder wall do not function properly during orgasm and sperm are forced backward into the bladder instead of forward out of the urethra. Sperm quality is often impaired.
Any structural abnormalities that damage or block the testes, tubes, or other reproductive structures can have a profound effect on fertility.
- Cryptorchidism. Cryptorchidism is a condition usually seen in newborn infants in which the testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum. Cryptorchidism is associated with mild to severe impairment of sperm production.
- Hypospadias. This is a birth defect in which the urinary opening is on the underside of the penis, can prevent sperm from reaching the cervix if not surgically corrected.
- Blockage in the Tubes that Transport Sperm. Some men are born with a blockage in the epididymis or ejaculatory ducts or other problems that later affect fertility. Some men lack the vas deferens, the tube that carries sperm from the testicles out through the penis. Low semen levels in ejaculate may be associated with structural abnormalities in the tubes transporting the sperm. (A normal amount of semen is 2.5 - 5 mL, or about 1/2 - 1 teaspoon.)
Ø The patients will provide the doctor with a detailed history of any medical or sexual factors that might affect fertility:
Ø Frequency and timing of sexual intercourse
Ø Duration of infertility and any previous fertility events
Ø Childhood illnesses and any problems in development
Ø Any serious illness (diabetes, respiratory infections, cancer, previous surgeries)
Ø Sexual history, including any sexually transmitted diseases
Ø Any exposure to toxins, such as chemicals or radiation
Ø History of any medications and allergies
Ø Any family history of reproductive problems
Homeopathy medicines works well in Infertility. After diagnosis symptomatic homeopathy medicines effectively helps for Infertility
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